Wood joinery, it is one of the essential woodworking skills that every woodworker should know. Let us talk about the 13 different types of wood joints and when to use them right. If you learn these wooden carpentry concepts, you are on your way towards becoming a very experienced woodworker.
Some of the most fundamental wood joints are butt joints, dovetail, mortise, and tenon and biscuits and jigs. Each wood joinery method is specifically for different purposes. However, the goal remains to be the same – to join pieces of wood and build a solid foundation for your wooden projects.
Wood joinery methods are one of the most fundamental concepts for woodworking. If you cannot put together two pieces of wood in a reliable fashion, all the parts of wood would be sculptures, carved out of a single piece of wood. However, with many different types of wood carpentry, a woodworker has various joints in his arsenal to choose from, so which one should you pick? Let us share the different types of wood joints with you and when you can use each kind.
The 13 Different Types of Wood Joints and When to Use Them
Without using wood joints, you wouldn’t get very far with a woodworking project. Woodworking joinery begins to sound more like body parts than something you use to make a bookshelf. So, before you feel ready to give up the whole woodworking hobby, here’s a list of the joints and when you should use each type of joinery.
When it comes to Butt Joints, perfecting square cuts are essential. The trick to a quality assembly is to make sure the ends of each have perfect square cuts as possible. Butt joints may be your go-to when the job is rough or rustic or when speed matters more than it seems. Just make sure that your joining technique is correct for the job. You may either counter-sink or plug the nail or screw holes to dress up a butt joint.
A butt joint is nothing more than one piece of wood fastening into another. Most frequently at the right angle or square to the other board. On the other hand, you can join pieces of wood through fastening with mechanical fasteners. This wood joinery is standard on building wall framing, and other square-shaped woodworking projects that don’t require heavy objects like shelves. It is because Butt Joints have the weakest connection of all wood joinery methods.
Types of Butt Joints
The term butt joint can refer to one of two general types of joints according to context. Often when we are talking about a butt joint, we relate to a situation where one board meets another at an angle of 90-degree. Hence, it looks like letter “L,” in which the letter’s two lines or boards cross end to end at an angle of 90 degrees. Examples of these types of assemblies include end to face assembly and end to edge assembly.
The word butt joint, in many cases, refers to a condition where the two pieces of board meet in a 180-degree fashion. The two boards form one longboard, identical to the capital letter “L.” Such types of assemblies include an end to end assemblies and edge to edge assemblies.
Pocket joinery is perfect for connecting pieces of wood with various grain orientations. For example, you can use it for table aprons and legs. Moreover, you can use it for making face frames. You can use it to reinforce a butt joint. The screws are toe-nailed in the wood at an angle, so the joint is much stronger than a traditional assembly. It is where the screws go straight through the end grain.
Pocket joinery is quick and relatively robust but a special jig and drill bit will be required. These joints aren’t the most glamorous, so you’ll want to find a way to hide them. A pocket joint is a form of wood joinery that involves cutting a slot and pre-drilling a pilot hole between two boards at an angle, before connecting the two to a screw.
The pre-drilling has to be very precise, so it’s usually performed using a commercial jig. Pocket joints work well for face frames in the cabinet and other similar applications where you don’t need much energy. Here are some of the most common uses of pocket screws.
- Beveled corners
- Edge banding
- Edge joining
- Euro-style cabinets
- Face frames
- Cabinet frames
- Leg rails
- Picture frames
- Window jambs
When to Use Pocket Hole Joinery
Occasionally, pocket holes appear on face frames, but some doubt that they will bear more burdensome work. While the pocket hole joint needs to hit the gym comparatively, the argument goes that only one joint shoulder rarely does the whole load. The weight distributed among a project’s many joints, and therefore the joint doesn’t have to be as durable or sturdy as other joints; it only needs to be strong enough.
Some joints do better when clear, as well as the strength. Many joints of the mortise and tenon and dovetail look like works of art. You will want them excellent on the piece of work. The joints to the biscuits are covered. You can buy pocket hole plugs that will do quite a good job of covering the work. Keep in mind that edge-joined stock, beveled corners, and curves will display the holes while covered by a table or bench.
When using wood joints, remember how the wood and finish will react to shrinkage and swelling. Pocket holes in dry conditions may show more gaps than other types of joints. It’s why you may still consider sealing gluing joints and preventing seasonal motion.
This method involves gluing “biscuits” of wood into slots cut into the wood. It is an excellent way to keep bits of plywood or other constructed material together, offering plenty of surfaces gluing and the strength of the biscuits themselves. Biscuits are perfect for casework and for fixing and lining up edge joints, but their shape can be frustrating before getting the hang of it.
Another way of connecting boards around the edges, such as the tongue and groove joint, is to cut holes and use beechwood wafers (known as biscuits) to keep the boards on it. It is a very useful, modern woodworking joint, particularly to create tabletops. Relying on glue and beechwood biscuit swelling to keep the boards in place. Learn how to cut regular slots from biscuit joinery and get accurate results.
Biscuit Joiner for Strong Joints
The biscuit joiner consists of an adjustable fence for proper placement, and a small motorized “saw blade” cuts a rounded hole into the joining pieces of wood. The moisture in the glue extends the biscuit’s compressed wood to create a great joint. One of the best reasons to use a biscuit cutter instead of dowels is that a small amount of variation is possible for the biscuit joint; the holes do not need to be precisely spaced as they do when using dowels.
Edge Joints With a Biscuit Joiner
A biscuit joiner’s most common usage is to join two boards together from edge to edge, creating a wider surface, and the biscuit joiner shines here. To achieve this joint, lay the boards in the direction and location desired for final assembly on a smooth surface. Boards should be soft, requiring just a light sanding before finishing, with the edges as straight as possible to be joined together.
You can choose from three sizes of biscuits; # 0, # 10, and # 20. You will possibly have a limited supply of will size because most jobs will include several different types of joints to produce. Choose a biscuit size; Typically, a # 20 is used for edge gluing. It is the largest of the available biscuits and will extend further through each plate. Other types of joints can involve smaller biscuits to not protrude beyond the board’s back surface.
Face Joints Using a Biscuit Joiner
Another rising joint in woodworking is the joining of the edge of one board to another’s face. These joints can involve joining one another on the sides of a cabinet, or joining a small shelf to the shelving side piece surface.
Typically, a small box made only with miters can survive just fine thanks to the new glues’ super strength. Even it is a good idea to install a spline. Miters with splines look good, and the joint can add to the design itself. The biggest negative of everything is vulnerability. You would also need to take some time to set up the joint properly so that there are no holes.
A mitered butt joint is almost similar to a regular butt joint. However, the two boards are joined together at an angle instead of a square. The downside is that no end grain is visible on the mitered butt joint, and as such, it is a little more esthetically pleasing. The mitered butt joint is not all that solid, though.
When To Use Miter Joints?
A miter joint is ideal at an angle (or composite angle) for connecting two surfaces. The joint is often ideal to use in tiny wooden boxes or wooden frames. You can use it to join end to end grain projects like picture frames, cabinet face frames, and boards joined at an angle along their length.
Dovetail joinery is widely prevalent in the wood joinery techniques world and is mostly used for decoration aside from its strength. The end parts, called tails and pins, interlock and form a stable joint. This joint isn’t exactly easy, but carefully fitted dovetails are a symbol of a great woodworker.
Even if you’re not well versed in dovetail joints, even one that you made sloppily can be quite powerful. Among all wood joinery methods, the most respected can be by dovetail. A dovetail classic is beautiful and very powerful and adds a touch of class to any piece. There are a variety of methods to build by dovetails, from hand cutting to jig machining.
Types Of Dovetail Joint
Dovetail Joints come in different types, which include Through dovetail, Half-blind dovetail, Secret mitered dovetail, and Sliding dovetail.
- Through Dovetail – The most straightforward method of creating a dovetail. Here, you will connect two pieces of wood at their ends with a finger-like form of interlocking. It is visible from all surfaces outside. This method is suitable for connecting the corners of frames, boxes, cabinets, and other objects.
- Half Blind Dovetail – A half-blind dovetail helps conceal the joint from the woodworker’s front end. Half-blind dovetails are also famous for fastening drawer fronts to drawer sides. It is an alternative to adding the false fronts to drawers designed using dovetails.
- Secret Mitered Dovetail – The hidden mitered dovetail joint, or what they call a mitered blind dovetail, is common in cabinet and box making. It provides strength found in the dovetail joint but concealed from both the inside and outside corners. It is possible by shaping the outside edge to meet at an angle of 45 degrees while internally hiding the dovetails inside the joint.
- Sliding Dovetail – The sliding dovetail is a method of connecting two boards at right angles, where the intersection occurs within the area of one of the boards, which is not at the edge. The joint provides a dovetail’s interlocking power. Slipping dovetails are common in the socket by moving the tail in.
How To Choose The Right Type Of Dovetail Joint?
It depends on factors such as purpose and design to determine which type of dovetail to select for your project. With advancements in technology as they are today, high-level woodworking has become much more available.
Making dovetails by hand is in and of itself a master skill. However, you can also use jigs, routers, and advanced dovetail parts to make sure the joint can be made correctly and repeated countless times. So when you build special projects that you want to last decades, you can be sure that dovetails will help ensure that they continue for long.
7.Mortise and Tenon Joint
This joint may look like a butt joint from the outside but concealed out of sight. It is a tenon, a projecting piece of wood that fits in the other piece’s mortise (a recess), locking together the wood. This approach offers a great deal of strength and surface for the glue. There are also several mortise and tenon joint types like mortise and tenons that use wedges or pins to secure the attachment in place.
The mortise and tenon are a popular form of wood joinery. Since the early days of woodworking, such joints have been used and are now one of the best and most elegant joining methods for wood. Find out how to do it here.
Types Of Mortises
A mortise is a cavity cut into a timber to receive a tenon, and there are several kinds of the mortise. Here are some types of mortises that most woodworkers apply in different projects.
- Open Mortise – It is a mortise that only comes with three sides.
- Stub Mortise – This is a shallow mortise, the depth of which depends on the timber; it is also a mortise that does not move through the piece of work.
- Through Mortise – It is a mortise that passes through one section.
Types Of Tenon
Tenon is a projection for insertion into mortise at the end of a timber. The tenon is typically taller than long. There are multiple tenon forms, which include the following.
- Stub Tenon – The depth of which depends on the timber’s size, even a shorter tenon than the mortised piece’s width, so the tenon doesn’t show up.
- Through Tenon – It is a tenon that passes through the piece of wood. As a result, it is becoming visible on the back.
- Loose Tenon – It is a tenon that is a different part of the joint instead of a fixed tenon, which is an integral part of one of the joining components.
Other Types Of Wood Joints
Wood joinery is one of the essential woodworking principles. Why do you match boards of pallets together? How did you follow them in that fashion? Here’s a list of popular wood joints styles and some examples that might help you decide how to create a pallet craft. Various joints are in use for woodworking. Let’s talk about the more common woodworking joints, so you know where to use them for your ventures.
Imagine this, for your next project, you need an 8-inch full panel. However, the most significant board you have is 6 inches. It is where the edge connects that comes to rescue — only by side-by-side gluing the sheets.
You might think two boards that are glued along the edges may not be durable. Just how stable the joint is will shock you. When you’re trying to crack the frame, the wood around the glue joint breaks down before the glue does. However, end-to-end gluing of wood fibers makes the joint considerably weaker, so you can only expand a piece, not to lengthen it.
Any of the most typical uses for a given joint? Shelves. This method joins two pieces of wood with a groove cut into one board, which fits into a second board. A die is nothing more than a square-grooved slot on one board that slides into another board. Like tongue and groove joinery, this is a widely used wood joint for connecting plywood, such as cabinet making.
A bridle joint is a woodworking joint that resembles a mortise and tenon. You cut a tenon at the end of one section and a mortise into the other to accept it. You cut the tenon and the mortise to the Tenon piece’s full width. It is the distinctive characteristic of this pair. So there are only three gluing surfaces. At their ends, the corner bridle joint connects two parts, forming a triangle.
You use this joint to hold a board, such as hands, in uprights. It has strong compressive strength and is relatively resistant to scratching. A mechanical fastener or pin is required. When you form the frame, you use corner bridles to connect frame sections. After assembly, you can remove material from the joined parts without having to do it.
One of the common woodworking joints is a finger joint or box joint. You use it to connect two pieces of wood into each other at right angles. Except that the pins are square and not bent, it is almost like a dovetail joint. The joint has to rely on glue to stay together. It has not got a dovetail’s mechanical ability. If you know how to use a table saw or a wood router with a simple jig, the woodworking joint is relatively easy to make.
11.Lap Wood Joint
A half lap joint is one of the frequently used woodworking joints. In a half-lap joint, you Remove material from each piece so that the thickest portion’s thickness is the resulting joint. The bits are of the same thickness most often at half-lap joints. You remove half of each depth. This joint is perfect for making storage items from the workshop.
The half-lap joint is where half of each of the two boards joined are removed so that the two boards join flush with each other. This form of wood joinery can weaken the strength of the two adjacent boards, but it is also a stronger joint than the butt joints. There are various projects where this kind of wood joint, given its disadvantages, is beautiful.
12.Rabbet Woodworking Joints
A rabbet is a recess cut to a piece of wood at the bottom. A rabbet is double-sided and accessible to the end of the surface when viewed in cross-section. An example of using a rabbet is in the back edge of a cabinet. The rabbet helps the sides to fit flush back. Another example is installing a glass pane using a rabbet around the frame’s bottom.
The rabbet is another regular wood joint that is used in the cabinetry. Essentially, a rabbet cut along the edge of a plate. Rabbets are also ideal for securing the back to the box’s sides at the end of cabinets and other similar configurations, adding additional strength to the assembly. It is essential to know how to cut, and when to use clean rabbets.
13.Tongue And Groove Woodworking Joints
The edge-to-edge joint, called tongue and groove, is one of the most common woodworking joints. One piece has a slot (groove) cut in one edge all along. The other section has a cut in tongue on the bottom of the mating. As a result, two or more pieces match tightly together. You can use it to make large table tops made from solid wood. Particular applications include wood flooring, parqueting, paneling, etc.
When you connect two boards square to each other along a long side, you can simply assemble the joint and tie it together with fasteners. However, the tongue and groove connection is much smoother and offers more adjacent surface areas, which is especially useful if the joint is to be glued.
Frequently Asked Questions
Wood joinery, it’s one of the most critical woodwork skills every woodworker should learn about it. A growing method of wood joinery is unique to various uses. Yet the aim continues to be the same – joining pieces of wood and creating a strong base for your wood projects. Once you know these wooden carpentry principles, you’ll be well on your way to becoming a highly skilled woodworker.
What Are Wood Joints Used For?
Joinery is a woodworking component, which includes linking pieces of wood or lumber together to make more complex products. Many wooden joints use fasteners, bindings, or adhesives, while others simply use wooden components. Wooden joints feature-strength, durability, resilience, appearance, and more.
What Is The Strongest Way To Join Wood?
The mortise and tenon are a popular form of wood joinery. Such joints have been used since the early days of woodworking, and are now one of the best and most elegant joining methods for wood.
Is Comb A Wood Joint?
A finger joint, also known as a comb joint, is a woodworking joint made of two wood pieces by cutting a series of parallel, interlocking profiles, which are then fused. The joint cross-section is identical to the interlocking of fingers between two hands, hence the term “finger joint.”